Section 13-1 Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms

Key Terms:
Middle Ages: Era of European history that ushered agradual decline of the Roman Empire and is also called the medieval period.
Franks: A Germanic people in the roman province of Gaul whos leader was Clovis.
Monasteries: Religious communities.
Secular: A worldly, power involved in politics.
Carolingian Dynasty: the family that would rule the Franks from 751 to 987.
Charlemagne: Charles the Great that ruled the kingdom 6ft4in tall.

Key People:

Key Terms:
-Middle ages began with roots in 1) the classical heritage of Rome 2) beliefs of roman caholic church 3) customs or some germanic tribes.
Invasions of Western Europe
--Germanic invaders overran Rome which caused many changes
-disruption of trade: merchants were invaded and buisnesses collapsed money was low.
--Downfall of cities" cities abandoned as centers of administration.
--Population shifts: plp moved in rural areas. Europe=mostly rural
The Decline in Learning:
-Germanic invaders- not read or write -romans -> rural and learning sank, greek info =lost, germanic tribes -oral tradition , but not written lnguage,
Loss of Common Language
-Latin changed -officail rang, not understood now, though and many diaects began-various anguages =break up of unified empire.
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge:
-germanic kingdoms replaced provinces and borders changed a lot becasue of war, but the church survived as the roman empire fell.
The Concept of Government Changes:
-Family lies and personal loyalty, not citizenship,held germannic society together unlike rome, germanis people lived in small communities governed by unwritten rules and traditions.
-each germannic cheif led band of warrriors that gave loyalty - followers lived in their lord's hall and he gave them food, weapns, and treasure- warriors fought to the deathat lord's side -disgrce to outlive - no loyalty in people they have not met-couldn't do large gover for big territories.
Clovis Rules the Franks
-Clovis is the leader of the Franks and would bring christianity to this region-Clothilde wife encouraged legend- led warriors against germanic army- he was afraid of losing so he prayed and the franks won after clovis + 3,000 warriois asked bishop ot bastize them.
-Clovis united Franks into one kingdom-alliance of church and franks made partnership between 2 pwerful forces.
Germans Adopt Christianity:
-politics helped spread christianity many germnic people converted to it and missionaries spread christianity-risked lived to spread it and fear of attacks by muslims converted people also.
Monasteries, Covents, and Manuscripts:
-church built monasteries where christan men or monks gave up their possesions and devoted theur lives to serving God-woman like this were nuns.
-Benedict was writing a book giving his strict rules fro monasteries and his sister, Scholastica headed a covent and used same rules fro women- these rules became a model for many other religions in W europe.
Papal Power Expands Under Gregory I:
-590- Gegory the great became pope-broadened the authority of the papacyor pope's office and under him papacy became a secular. Pope's palace-center of roman govern. did peace treaties, used church to raise armies, repair roads, help poor.
-Gregory strengthened the vision of christendom-spiritual kingdom from rome to distant churches - churchyly kingdom lead by a pope was central theme of middle ages .
An Empire Evolves:
-England=seven tiny kingdoms, When the franks' first christian king, clovis died he had extended frankish rule ove what is now france.
Chares Martel Emerges:
-Major domo or mayor of the palace became most powerful person in frankish kingdomhe had charge of roal estates and houses-led armiess and made olicy and he ruled kingdom.
-Charles Martel held more power than the king -he extended frank's reign to the N, S, and E-defeated musim raiders and Victory at tours made him chrisian hero.
-Charles Martel passed power to son at death-Pepin the Short-cooperted ith pope, agreed to fight the Lombards-threatened rome-king appointed him king by the grace of God which started carolingian dynasty.
Charlemagne Becomes Emperor:
-Pepin died and left his power to two sons, carloman and charles-after carloman died charles or Charlemagne ruled the kingdom and was 6ft4in-secretary monnk named Einhard descirbed his acheievments.
Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule:
-he built an empire greater than any since ancient rome-each summer led armies against enemies surrounding kingdom, fought muslims in spain and tribes from germanic kingdoms. he spread christianity-reunited W europe, larger than byzantium empire.
-he went to rome to attak mob tht hurt the pope-in gratitudePope Leo III made him emperor -signaled the joining of germanic power, the church, and the heritage of roman empire.
Charlemagne Leads a Revival:
-limited power of nobels, sent out royal agents who made sure landholders governed justly, he vistited kingdom everywhere, watched managment of huge estate, encouraged learning, surrounded himself w/ scholars, opened palace school, ordered monasteries to open schools training monks and priests in future.
Charlemagne's Heirs:
-After he died his survivig son, Louis the Pious became emperor-very religions and not good ruler and he had 3 sons Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the Germanand fought each other for controlof empire-signed treaty of Verdun, dividing empire into 3 kingdoms- so carolingian kings lost power and central pwoer broke-led to fuedalism.